Dette er den desidert beste gjennomgangen av hva svovel kan bidra med i helse og medisin. Her blir de aller fleste svovel-kosttilskuddene diskutert, og MSM får en stor rolle. Den gir en komplett forståelse av alle aspekter rundt svovel og kosthold.
Den nevner hvordan tilførsel av svovel i mate kan redusere behovet for svovelholdige aminosyrer som metionin og cystein. Den nevner også hvordan svovelforbruker øker ved idrett eller sykdom, og at normal svovelinntak fra mat kanskje ikke er nok i slike tilfeller.
Den nevner at spedbarn trenger omtrent 5x mengden svovel (met og cys) pr.kg enn det voksne trenger. 2 år gamle barn trenger dobbelt så mye. Siden barn veier mye mindre enn voksne, helt ned i 30-40x mindre for spedbarn, er dosen mye mindre likevel, men det er verdt å legge merke til at barn trenger mye svovel.
Den nevner at MSM er like lite giftig som vann, altså ett av de minst giftige stoffene i naturen.
«The biosynthesis of organic sulfur com- pounds from sulfate takes place mainly in plants and bacteria, whereas the oxidation of these com- pounds to sulfate is characteristic of animal species.»
«Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), an important volatile component in the sulfur cycle, is another source of sulfur found in the human diet. Sulfur is the sixth most abundant macromineral in breast milk5 (colostrum has three times more than mature milk) and the third most abundant mineral determined by percentage of total body weight in an adult.6»
Her nevnes det at svovel på huden gjør at blodkar i huden utvider seg. «Topically, sulfur can induce various histological changes, including hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilation of dermal vessels.8»
«The primary sulfur-containing compounds of interest in humans are methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, cystathione, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), tau- rine, α-keto-γ-CH3-thiobutyrate, methanethiol, thiamin, biotin, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), coen- zyme A, glutathione (GSH), chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, fibrinogen, heparin, metallothionein, and inorganic sulfate.16 With the exception of the two sulfur-containing vitamins, thiamin and biotin, all of these sulfur compounds are synthesized from just one parent compound, methionine.16 In addition, sulfur is needed for a number of chemical reactions involved in the me- tabolism of drugs, steroids, and xenobiotics.»
«In animal diets deficient in cysteine, sulfate has been demonstrated to spare the physiological need for cysteine and reverse weight loss induced by cysteine-deficient diets.16 In addition cysteine, but not methionine, becomes labeled with radioactive-S when radioactive sul- fate is fed or injected into animals. Thus, sulfate can be incorporated into compounds for which cysteine is a precursor, e.g., taurine and GSH.16»
«The ex- tracellular sulfate pool in humans is among the smallest of animal species19 and is readily depleted by consumption of a low protein diet or by drugs metabolized by sulfation.19,20»
«The RDA committee recommends a com- bined SAA intake of at least 13 mg/kg per day. This is equivalent to approximately 910 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. Other authorities believe this figure to be too low and recommend an intake of 25 mg/kg/day of SAA for adults.21,22 A rule of thumb is 1 gram of protein should contain at least 17 mg of SAAs (e.g., gluten (wheat protein) or zein (corn protein)).»
«Analysis of long-term vegans living in California revealed an average protein intake of 64 g/day and an SAA intake of approximately 15 mg/kg/day or 16 mg of SAA per gram of protein.23 This level of intake would just meet the average requirement but could be marginal for adults with higher than average requirements, such as athletes or people with HIV. Although not conclusive evi- dence, this does provide evidence that vegan pa- tients should be screened for SAA deficiency.»
Excessive physical stress, such as is seen in athletic overtraining, inflicts minor trauma on the athlete’s body and can deplete plasma glu- tathione levels,28,29 and increase urinary loss of sulfate.30 For the athlete in training, muscle ca- tabolism or a decrease in plasma GSH are coun- terproductive. Suboptimal intakes of sulfur amino acids during training may exert a proinflammatory influence because, at low levels of intake, cysteine is preferentially incorporated into protein rather than GSH.31 It follows that methionine and cys- teine could be used to ameliorate loss of lean tis- sue and GSH stores. Cysteine and methionine are abundant in whey protein. Methionine can be con- verted into cysteine (cysteine is the rate-limiting step in glutathione synthesis). Lipoic acid could be used to reduce oxidative stress and to preserve vitamin E and C status.»
«There is a metabolic relationship between methionine and MSM. When cows were fed D, L- methionine orally a substantial increase in urinary MSM excretion was observed.101»
«Methylsulfonylmethane is one of the least toxic substances in biology, similar in toxicity to water. The lethal dose (LD50) of DMSO for mice is over 20 g/kg body weight.106»