Om hvordan melatonin beskytter mitokondriene i muskler og insulin resistens.
Teodore et.al. 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981026
Melatonin has a number of beneficial metabolic actions and reduced levels of melatonin may contribute to type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the metabolic pathways involved in the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The effect of melatonin was tested both in vitro in isolated rats skeletal muscle cells and in vivo using pinealectomized rats (PNX). Insulin resistance was induced in vitro by treating primary rat skeletal muscle cells with palmitic acid for 24 hr. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced by palmitic acid followed by decreased phosphorylation of AKT which was prevented my melatonin. Palmitic acid reduced mitochondrial respiration, genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and the levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates whereas melatonin counteracted all these parameters in insulin-resistant cells. Melatonin treatment increases CAMKII and p-CREB but had no effect on p-AMPK. Silencing of CREB protein by siRNA reduced mitochondrial respiration mimicking the effect of palmitic acid and prevented melatonin-induced increase in p-AKT in palmitic acid-treated cells. PNX rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance, decreased energy expenditure and decreased p-AKT, mitochondrial respiration, and p-CREB and PGC-1 alpha levels in skeletal muscle which were restored by melatonin treatment in PNX rats. In summary, we showed that melatonin could prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance via activation of CREB-PGC-1 alpha pathway. Thus, the present work shows that melatonin play an important role in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function which could explain some of the beneficial effects of melatonin in insulin resistance states.
Alt om hvordan melatonin virker som en antioksidant. Jo større ROS utfordring vi har, jo mer spiser det av melatoninlagrene våre. Når vi får mindre ROS, feks gjennom kostholdsendringer og stressreduksjon, så økes melatonin igjen.
Melatonin is a highly conserved molecule. Its presence can be traced back to ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. A primitive and primary function of melatonin is that it acts as a receptor-independent free radical scavenger and a broad-spectrum antioxidant. The receptor-dependent functions of melatonin were subsequently acquired during evolution. In the current review, we focus on melatonin metabolism which includes the synthetic rate-limiting enzymes, synthetic sites, potential regulatory mechanisms, bioavailability in humans, mechanisms of breakdown and functions of its metabolites. Recent evidence indicates that the original melatonin metabolite may be N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) rather than its commonly measured urinary excretory product 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate. Numerous pathways for AFMK formation have been identified both in vitro and in vivo. These include enzymatic and pseudo-enzymatic pathways, interactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and with ultraviolet irradiation. AFMK is present in mammals including humans, and is the only detectable melatonin metabolite in unicellular organisms and metazoans. 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate has not been observed in these low evolutionary-ranked organisms. This implies that AFMK evolved earlier in evolution than 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate as a melatonin metabolite. Via the AFMK pathway, a single melatonin molecule is reported to scavenge up to 10 ROS/RNS. That the free radical scavenging capacity of melatonin extends to its secondary, tertiary and quaternary metabolites is now documented. It appears that melatonin’s interaction with ROS/RNS is a prolonged process that involves many of its derivatives. The process by which melatonin and its metabolites successively scavenge ROS/RNS is referred as the free radical scavenging cascade. This cascade reaction is a novel property of melatonin and explains how it differs from other conventional antioxidants. This cascade reaction makes melatonin highly effective, even at low concentrations, in protecting organisms from oxidative stress. In accordance with its protective function, substantial amounts of melatonin are found in tissues and organs which are frequently exposed to the hostile environmental insults such as the gut and skin or organs which have high oxygen consumption such as the brain. In addition, melatonin production may be upregulated by low intensity stressors such as dietary restriction in rats and exercise in humans.
Intensive oxidative stress results in a rapid drop of circulating melatonin levels. This melatonin decline is not related to its reduced synthesis but to its rapid consumption, i.e. circulating melatonin is rapidly metabolized by interaction with ROS/RNS induced by stress. Rapid melatonin consumption during elevated stress may serve as a protective mechanism of organisms in which melatonin is used as a first-line defensive molecule against oxidative damage. The oxidative status of organisms modifies melatonin metabolism. It has been reported that the higher the oxidative state, the more AFMK is produced. The ratio of AFMK and another melatonin metabolite, cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, may serve as an indicator of the level of oxidative stress in organisms.
Viser hvordan melatonin øker om kvelden etter en meditasjonsøkt. Melatonin er viktig for mange ting i kroppen. Det er best kjent som et søvnhormon, men det er også kroppens «master restitution hormone».
» It is concluded that meditation, at least in the two forms studied here, can affect plasma melatonin levels. It remains to be determined whether this is achieved through decreased hepatic metabolism of the hormone or via a direct effect on pineal physiology.»