RR interval-respiratory signal waveform modeling in human slow paced and spontaneous breathing.

Enda en bekreftelse på at pusten påvirker vagusnerven, og vagusnerven påvirker betennelser. Og at 0,1Hz (6 pust i minuttet) gir sterkest påvirkning på vagusnerven.


Denne studien var en datamodell av hvordan forskjellige elementer av pusten (dybde og hastighet i dette tilfellet) påvirker hjerterytmen, som uttrykker vagusnerven. De fant at pustefrekvensen påvirket mest, altså hastigheten i dette tilfellet. 

The model’s results depended on breathing frequency with the least error occurring during slow paced breathing.

Deres forklaring på hvorfor pusten påvirker hjerterytmen er at strekk-reseptorer i lungene sier ifra om lungevolum som hjernen så bruker til å vurdere kardiovagale (vagusnervens påvirkning på hjertet) signaler.

Assuming that a0 represents slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs) and a1 SARs in coordination with other stretch receptors and central integrative coupling; then pulmonary stretch receptors relaying the instantaneous lung volume are the major factor determining cardiovagal output during inspiration.

De sier at ved forskjellige sykdommer blir det dårligere forbindelse mellom blodstrømning, blodtrykk, hjerterytme og pust, som gir ustabil kardivagal styring.

The role of vagal afferent neurons in cardiorespiratory coupling may relate to neurocardiovascular diseases in which weakened coupling among venous return, arterial pressure, heart rate and respiration produces cardiovagal instability.

Dette kan bidra til saktere, eller manglende, helbredelse av sykdom. Når man lærer å bruke pusten til å styrke vagusnerven er man i det minste én faktor nærmere helbredelse.


Treating Diabetes with Exercise – Focus on the Microvasculature

Veldig viktig studie som nevner at det ikke finnes glatt muskulatur i kapillærene, så det er arteriolene som avgjør blodsirkulasjonen i kapillærene. His blodsirkulasjonen i en arteriole blir dårlig stopper sirkulasjonen opp i et område av muskelen som serveres av kapillærene.



The rising incidence of diabetes and the associated metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and hypertension have led to investigation of a number of drugs to treat these diseases. However, lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise remain the first line of defense. The benefits of exercise are typically presented in terms of weight loss, improved body composition and reduced fat mass, but exercise can have many other beneficial effects. Acute effects of exercise include major changes in blood flow through active muscle, an active hyperemia that increases the delivery of oxygen to the working muscle fibers. Longer term exercise training can affect the vasculature, improving endothelial health and possibly basal metabolic rates. Further, insulin sensitivity is improved both acutely after a single bout of exercise and shows chronic effects with exercise training, effectively reducing diabetes risk. Exercise-mediated improvements in endothelial function may also reduce complications associated with both diabetes and other metabolic disease. Thus, while drugs to improve microvascular function in diabetes continue to be investigated, exercise can also provide many similar benefits on endothelial function and should remain the first prescription when treating insulin resistance and diabetes. This review will investigate the effects of exercise on the blood vessel and the potential benefits of exercise on cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

At rest, a low proportion of capillaries are exposed to blood flow at one time, with a rapid increase in the number of perfused capillaries after exercise [31], thus increasing functional capillary density.

Vascular smooth muscle cells are located around the arterioles and some venules, and can constrict to change blood flow patterns, while capillaries do not typically contribute to blood flow changes [30] (Figure 1). Blood flow through capillaries is controlled upstream by small arterioles at rest, and the rapid recruitment of unperfused capillaries by exercise could suggest that nerves are responsible for this action [34]. The sympathetic nervous system is mainly responsible for the vasoconstrictor responses, and as the arterioles and larger vessels are innervated [38] the majority of sympathetic nervous system activity is localized to that area of the vascular tree. Physical exercise can enhance sympathetic nerve activity [39] to maintain arterial pressure, and may be involved in maintaining exercise tolerance, as reviewed by Thomas and Segal [38].

Structural differences between artery, arteriole and capillary. No vascular smooth muscle is located on the capillary; therefore flow through capillaires is modified by pre-capillary arterioles. Cessation of flow through arterioles will prevent flow through a portion of the muscle.

Insulin relies on endothelium-dependent vasodilation to enhance perfusion, thus endothelial dysfunction reduces insulin-mediated increases in muscle perfusion, which can contribute to the metabolic deficit in diabetes. As exercise-mediated changes in perfusion are typically endothelium-independent, exercise is still able to recruit capillaries and thus increase muscle perfusion in obesity and type 2 diabetes, even in the face of endothelial dysfunction. Numerous studies have now shown that while insulin’s vascular effects may be blocked in diabetes, exercise still maintains its ability to increase the distribution of blood flow through muscle [42].

Nitric oxide (NO) is the main vasodilator from the endothelium specifically involved in blood flow and blood distribution, and while reduction in nitric oxide synthesis lowered total blood flow, exercise-mediated capillary recruitment was not affected [46]. In fact, inhibition of NO formation enhances both resting and exercise-mediated muscle oxygen uptake [47]; despite a reduction in total flow, microvascular flow was not affected, suggesting that NO is not involved in the vascular response to exercise.

The distribution of blood through muscle increases the capacity for nutrient exchange. In exercise the primary purpose of functional hyperemiais for oxygen delivery, as the oxygen required by exercising muscle is much higher than resting muscle (reviewed in [37]). Recruitment of capillaries can decrease the velocity of blood flow by increasing the cross-sectional area of the capillary bed and the time available for exchange. Recruitment also increases surface area for exchange and decreases perfusion distances to promote oxygen delivery to tissues with exercise [34] (Figure 2). While in exercise the main metabolite required at the working muscle is oxygen, distribution of other nutrients can also be affected, including glucose, fats, other hormones and cytokines. Muscle metabolism can therefore be altered by perfusion of the tissue [48,49]. While there can be regulated transport of certain larger hormones across the vasculature [50,51], smaller molecules can diffuse across the endothelium easily, possibly making muscle perfusion a more important player in the delivery of glucose and oxygen to the tissue.

Vasodilation affects delivery, and thus metabolism. The rate of transfer across the endothelium is dependent on surface area, permeability of the endothelium, diffusion distance, and concentration difference (Fick’s first law of diffusion). Vasodilation increases surface area in arterioles for exchange, but will also recruit downstream capillaries, which will reduce diffusion distance and increase surface area for exchange. Working muscle increases oxygen utilization, increasing the concentration difference from the blood vessel to the tissue.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to be both a cause [72] and a consequence [73] of insulin resistance, and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction [74]. If oxygen delivery is a component of mitochondrial health and biogenesis, it is possible that impaired perfusion may contribute to fiber type switching, where an oxidative fiber, which is typically highly vascularized and contains mitochondria, switches to a glycolytic fiber with less vascularity and mitochondria. As exercise can improve oxidative capacity, increase mitochondria content [75], and also increase muscle perfusion [31,32,34,45,76], the relationship between muscle perfusion, fiber type and mitochondrial function needs to be clarified.

The vascular component of exercise may well be linked to the reduction of diabetic complication such as retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy, as there is a vascular basis to many of these complications. The endothelium has been implicated in diabetic nephropathy [88], and the blood vessels formed in response to reduced perfusion in retinopathy show abnormal structure and function [89].

Morning attenuation in cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in healthy humans is associated with a lowered cerebral oxygenation and an augmented ventilatory response to CO2

Denne beskriver hvordan blodkarenes respons på CO2 er dårligere om morgenen, og det er derfor det skjer flere slag og slikt om morgenen. Den nevner mange interessante prinsipper. Bl.a. at lavere vasomotor respons (på CO2) gir mindre oksygen til hjernen. Og at i opptil 20 sekunder etter en 20 sekunder holdning av pust (etter utpust) øker fortsatt oksygenmengden og blodgjennomstrømningen i hjernen. Nevner også at siden blodkarene i hjernen reagerer dårligere på CO2 om morgenen blir det lett at pusten over- eller underkompenserer, så pustemønsteret blir uregelmessig om morgenen. Spesielt om man har underliggende faremomenter som hjerte/karsykdommer.



Furthermore, our results suggest that morning cerebral tissue oxygenation might be reduced as a result of a decreased cerebrovascular responsiveness to CO2 or other factors, leading to a higher level of desaturation.

Our data indicate that the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 in healthy subjects is significantly reduced in the morning and is strongly associated with an augmented ventilatory response to CO2. It is likely that this reduction in MCAV CO2 reactivity, by reducing blood flow through medullary respiratory control centers, increases both the arterial-brain tissue PCO2 difference and the H+ concentration presented to the central chemoreceptor(s) (1144). In effect, it appears the brain tissue is more susceptible in the morning to changes in arterial PCO2, which could increase the likelihood of ventilatory overshoots and undershoots.

However, as was the case with the hypercapnic challenge, subjects holding their breath in the morning experienced a significantly blunted increase in MCAV compared with evening, likely a result of a reduced cerebrovascular responsiveness to CO2.

In conclusion, our results suggest that early morning reductions in cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity strongly influence the magnitude of the ventilatory response to CO2. This may have significant implications for breathing stability, increasing the chances of periodic breathing in the morning in patients with additional risk factors. The early morning reduction in cerebral oxygenation with hypercapnic challenge, mild hypoxemia, or during apnea may be a contributing factor in the high prevalence of early morning stroke. Whether differences in the responses of CBF, oxygenation, or V̇E to CO2challenge are associated with other risk factors for stroke, such as gender or age, remains to be elucidated.

CO2-beriket vann til fotbad

Å bade i CO2 beriket vann har vært brukt som medisin i alle år. Hellige og mirkauløse kilder har ofter vært vann med et høyt innhold av karbondioksid. Og det har blitt brukt i spa behandling i århundrer, spesielt i Bulgaria. Man finner Co2-rikt vann spesielt ved sovende og inaktive vulkaner.

CO2 er et veldig lite molekyl som diffunderer lett igjennom huden. I CO2-beriket vann kommer derfor CO2 inn i huden og inn til blodkarene i underhuden, hvor alle sansenerver ligger. Den økte CO2 en gjør at blodkarene rundt nervetrådene og i muskelvevet utvides (vasodilasjon) og at oksygene letter hopper av blodcellene slik at det kan bli brukt til energi i celler som vanligvis har lite tilgang på oksygen.

CO2 beriket vann kan vi lage selv på en svært enkel måte: blande Natron, Sitronsyre og vann. Begge disse stoffene fåes kjøpt på vanlig daglivarebutikk. Vannet begynner å bruse, og dette er CO2.

Studier nevner at man bør ha 900-1200 mg CO2 pr liter vann. Ved å måle pH kan vi regne med at vi har det når pH er nede på 5.

Vi kan se CO2 effekten på huden ved at det kommer tett-i-tett med ørsmå bobler. I f.eks. fotbad vil vi se at når vi tar foten opp fra vannet så er den rød, noe som er et tegn på økt blodsirkulasjon i huden.

For alle med nevropatier, diabetes, sår, nevromer, leggspenninger, restless leg syndrom, som lett blir sliten i bena av å gå, så vil dette være verdt et forsøk.

2-3 ganger i uka pleier å være den vanlige oppskriften. Noen studier har brukt det hver dag i mange uker. Spesielt når det gjelder diabetes sår.

Oppskrift: Bland 1 poseNatron med 2 poser Sitronsyre (blandingsforhold ca. 1:1) og hell innholdet i 5L vann. Det bruser veldig pga reaksjonen som lager CO2. Når du setter føttene nedi skal det komme mange små bobler som dekker huden. Etter 5-10 minutter vil huden som er under vann bli rød. Dette er et tegn på økt blodsirkulasjon.

5-15 minutter etter du er ferdig med fotbadet vil du sannsynligvis kjenne det prikker og strømmer ellers i kroppen også. Vanligvis kjennes det først og fremst i armer og bein, som er de stedene vi lettest kjenner økt blodsirkulasjon.

Her er noen studier som bekrefter effektene av CO2 beriket vann.

Beskriver det meste om balneotherapy, som det også heter. Inkludert kontraindikasjoner(hjerteproblemer og hypercapni som følge av lungeskade): http://www.centro-lavalle.com/edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Carbon_Dioxide_Bath.pdf

Table 4. Major Indicators for CO2 Balneotherapy

1. Hypertension, especially borderline hypertension

2. Arteriolar occlusion, Stages I and II

3. Functional arteriolar blood flow disorders

4. Microcirculatory disorders

5. Functional disorders of the heart

Beskriver alt om hvordan det øker blodsirkulasjon og oksygenmetning: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3169585/?report=classic

Viser at det øker blodsirkulasjonen i huden og oksygenmetningen i muskelvev hos de som lett blir trøtte i beina: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9112881/

Viser at det øker blodsirkulasjon og produksjonen av blodkar (angiogenese): http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/111/12/1523.long

Viser at det reparerer sår som ikke vil gro: http://iv.iiarjournals.org/content/24/2/223.long

Viser at det reparerer muskelskade: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805014/

Viser at det reparerer muskelskade og atrofi (muskelsvikt) etter langtids post-operative sengeliggende: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21371433

Viser at det reduserer hjertefrekvens gjennom å dempe sympaticus aktivering (ikke ved å øke parasymptaticus aktivering): http://jap.physiology.org/content/96/1/226

Viser at det øker mitokondrier og fjerner syster: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499556/

Viser at det øker antioksidant status, reduserer frie radikaler og øker blodsirkulasjon i kapuillærene (mikrosirkulasjon): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21248668

Viser at det hjelper til å reparere sår etter operasjon: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3595724/

Dr. Sircus sin forklaring av CO2 medisin som nevner mange måter å gjøre det på: http://drsircus.com/medicine/co2-medicine-bath-bombing-your-way-to-health

Denne artikkelen beskriver mye om historien til CO2-bad. http://ndnr.com/dermatology/cellulite-and-carbon-dioxide-bath/

Mange bilder av diabetes sår (OBS: ikke for sarte sjeler) som blir regenerert i løpet av få uker med 20-30 min fotbad. Disse bruker 900-1000ppm CO2 konsentrasjon. Jeg er usikker på om det er mulig med å blande Sitronsyre og Natron: http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=48581

Denne artikkelen beskriver de fleste sider ved forskjellig bruk av CO2 behandling. God gjennomgang av hvordan blodsirkluasjonen påvirkes. http://www.scuolaeuropeamedicinaestetica.it/public/CARBOXYTHERAPY.pdf

Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise

Nevner svært mye spennende om stølhet (DOMS). Spesielt om hvor mye central sensitering har å si, og mye om hydrering (vann). Samt alt om betennelser og andre faktorer knyttet til DOMS. Sier bl.a. at glucogenlagre normaliseres etter 24 timer uavhengig av hva man spiser, men glykogen omsetningen i kroppen er begrenset i 2-3 dager etter. Nevner også at det er alle de perifere faktorene, sammen med de sentrale, som tilsammen skaper DOMS tilstanden.



Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise.

recovery strategies might be broadly differentiated as being either physiological (e.g., cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, massage, compression, sleep), pharmacological (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications) or nutritional (e.g., dietary supplements), all mean to limit continued post-exercise disturbances and inflammatory events within the exercised muscle cells. This peripheral focus emphasizes the importance of an accelerated return of structural integrity and functional capacity from below the neuromuscular junction.

Conceptually, if the brain is held as central to the process of performance declines (i.e., fatigue), it stands to reason that it would also have some role in post-exercise recovery (De Pauw et al., 2013).

Classically defined as an exercise-induced reduction in force generating capacity of the muscle, fatigue may be attributed to peripheral contractile failure, sub-optimal motor cortical output (supraspinal fatigue) and/or altered afferent inputs (spinal fatigue) innervating the active musculature (Gandevia, 2001).

Alternatively, concepts of residual fatigue remain predominately within the domain of peripherally driven mechanisms, such as blood flow, muscle glycogen repletion and clearance of metabolic wastes (Bangsbo et al., 2006).

The physical and biochemical changes observed during intermittent-sprint exercise have traditionally been interpreted in terms of metabolic capacity (Glaister, 2005). Indeed, lowered phosphocreatine concentrations (Dawson et al., 1997), reduced glycolytic regeneration of ATP (Gaitanos et al., 1993) and increasing H+ accumulation (Bishop et al., 2003) have all been associated with declining intermittent-sprint performance.

While reductions in muscle excitability after intermittent-sprint exercise have also been observed (Bishop, 2012), metabolic perturbations are rapidly recovered within minutes (Glaister, 2005).

The ultimate indicator of post-exercise recovery is the ability of the muscle to produce force i.e., performance outcomes.

Reductions in skeletal muscle function after intermittent-sprint exercise are often proposed to be caused by a range of peripherally-induced factors, including: intra-muscular glycogen depletion; increased muscle and blood metabolites concentrations; altered Ca++ or Na+-K+ pump function; increased skeletal muscle damage; excessive increases in endogenous muscle and core temperatures; and the reduction in circulatory function via reduced blood volume and hypohydration (Duffield and Coutts, 2011; Bishop, 2012; Nédélec et al., 2012).

Conversely, Krustrup et al. (2006) reported declines in intramuscular glycogen of 42 ± 6% in soccer players, with depleted or almost depleted glycogen stores in ~55% of type I fibers and ~25–45% of type II fibers reasoned to explain acute declines in sprint speed post-match. Importantly, muscle glycogen resynthesis after team sport activity is slow and may remain attenuated for 2–3 days (Nédélec et al., 2012). Such findings highlight the importance of nutrition in post-exercise recovery (Burke et al., 2006); yet it is noteworthy that muscle glycogen stores remain impaired 24 h after a soccer match, irrespective of carbohydrate intake and should be recognized as a factor in sustained post-match suppression of force (Bangsbo et al., 2006; Krustrup et al., 2011).

Mechanical disruptions to the muscle fiber are task dependant, though likely relate to the volume of acceleration, deceleration, directional change and inter-player contact completed (i.e., tackling or collisions) (McLellan et al., 2011; Duffield et al., 2012). Importantly, EIMD manifests in reduced voluntary force production that has been associated with the elevated expression of intracellular proteins (e.g., creatine kinase and C-reactive protein), swelling, restricted range of motion and muscle soreness (Cheung et al., 2003). Whilst it is generally accepted that lowering blood-based muscle damage profiles may hasten athletic recovery, mechanisms explaining the return of skeletal muscle function are somewhat ambiguous (Howatson and Van Someren, 2008).

Interestingly, markers of EIMD are also not closely associated with muscle soreness (Nosaka et al., 2002; Prasartwuth et al., 2005), though perceptual recovery is reportedly related with the recovery of maximal sprint speed (Cook and Beaven, 2013). While this raises questions in terms of the physiological underpinnings of muscle soreness, weaker relationships between EIMD and neuromuscular performance may suggest the potential for other drivers of recovery outside of peripheral (muscle damage or metabolic) factors alone.

Finally, while the relationship between hydration status and intermittent-sprint performance remains contentious (Edwards and Noakes, 2009), fluid deficits of 2–4% are common following team-sport exercise (Duffield and Coutts, 2011). Mild hypohydration reportedly demonstrates limited effects on anaerobic power and vertical jump performance (Hoffman et al., 1995; Cheuvront et al., 2006); however, some caution is required in interpreting these data as these testing protocols reflect only select components of team sport performance.

Nevertheless, the role of hydration in recovery should not be overlooked as changes in extracellular osmolarity are suggested to influence glucose and leucine kinetics (Keller et al., 2003). Further, the negative psychological associations (conscious or otherwise) derived from a greater perceptual effort incurred in a hypohydrated state may impact mental fatigue (Devlin et al., 2001; Mohr et al., 2010).

Rather, that the integrative regulation of whole body disturbances based on these peripheral factors, alongside central regulation may be relevant.

Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine and C-reactive protein: evidence for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in healthy human adults.

Stor studie med 611 friske arbeidere som viser at lav HRV assosieres med betennelser (CRP).




C-reactive protein (CRP) has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in population-based studies. Recent advances have suggested a prominent role for the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the regulation of inflammation. However, no in vivo human studies have examined indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity simultaneously in relationship to inflammatory markers in apparently healthy adults. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effects of the ANS.


The study population comprised 611 apparently healthy employees of an airplane manufacturing plant in southern Germany. Urinary NE was positively associated with white blood cell count (WBC) in the total sample. We found an inverse association between indices of vagally mediated heart rate variability and plasma levels of (CRP), which was significantly larger in females than in males after controlling for relevant covariates including NE. Similar results were found using the percentage of interbeat interval differences >50 ms and WBC.


We report here for the first time, in a large sample of healthy human adults, evidence supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway after controlling for sympathetic nervous system activity. This suggests an important role for the vagal control of systemic inflammatory activity in cardiovascular disease.

The relationship between heart rate variability and inflammatory markers in cardiovascular diseases.

Om hvrodan lav HRV bidrar til hjerte/kar problematikk og betennelser.



Recent evidence implicates a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Because vagus nerve activity mediates some heart rate variability (HRV), this qualitative review examines the literature concerning circulating cytokines and HRV in cardiovascular function in humans. This qualitative review examines the literature concerning circulating cytokines and HRV in cardiovascular function in humans.


Thirteen studies on HRV, inflammation, and cardiovascular function were located by electronic library search and descriptively reviewed.


The relationship between HRV and inflammation was studied in healthy controls, patients with acute or stable coronary heart disease (CHD), patients with metabolic syndrome or impaired glucose tolerance and patients with kidney failure. Investigations focused mainly on Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive peptide (CRP). The majority of reviewed studies reported that parasympathetic nervous system tone as inferred from heart rate variability is inversely related to inflammatory markers (r values between -0.2 and -0.4). The relationships with inflammatory markers were similar whether derived from ECG signals as short as 5-30min or from 24-h ECG readings for HRV analyses. While inflammatory markers appear to be related to HRV, it is a mistake to assume that the traditional «vagal measures» of HRV (such as high frequency heart rate variability) are the driving factors. Indeed, low frequency heart rate variability, a complex measure reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, is the more commonly associated measure linked to inflammatory markers.


Heart rate variability is inversely correlated with inflammatory markers in healthy individuals as well as in those with cardiovascular diseases.

You may need the vagus nerve to understand pathophysiology and to treat diseases

Denne studien gir en omfattende gjennomgang av hvordan stimulering av vagusnerven kan være viktig å fokusere på i behandling av forskjellige sykdommer.
These diseases include cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and the metabolic syndrome. Three basic mechanisms contribute to such illnesses: local oxidative stress and DNA damage, inflammatory reactions and excessive sympathetic responses, all of which are inhibited by vagal nerve activity.

RR Interval Variability Is Inversely Related to Inflammatory Markers: The CARDIA Study

Bekrefter at svak vagus gir økt betennelse. Stor studie som inkluderte over 750 deltakere.


Recent evidence reveals that the immune system is under the direct control of the vagus nerve via the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.” Stimulation of vagus nerve activity significantly inhibits cytokine levels in animal models, and cholinergic agents inhibit cytokine release by human macrophages. Moreover, when vagus nerve activity is decreased or absent, cytokines are overproduced. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by elevated levels of CRP and IL-6, but the relationship between cardiac vagal activity and cytokine levels in healthy humans is not well understood. Here we measured RR interval variability, an index of cardiac vagal modulation, and CRP and IL-6 in 757 subjects participating in a subset of the year 15 data collection in the CARDIA study of the evolution of risk factors in young adults. Univariate analysis revealed that all indices of RRV were strongly and inversely related to IL-6 (log pg/mL b= −0.08 and −0.17 for HF and LF power, P < 0.001 respectively) and CRP (log mg/L b = −0.14 and −0.26 for HF and LF power, P < 0.001 respectively) levels. In the multivariate model including gender, race, age, smoking, physical activity, SBP, BMI, and disease, the inverse relationship between RRV and inflammatory markers, although slightly attenuated, remained significant. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that diminished descending vagal anti-inflammatory signals can allow cytokine overproduction in humans.

To our knowledge, these are the first results demonstrating inverse relationships between inflammatory markers and indices of cardiac autonomic regulation in a large sample of healthy young adults. These findings are consistent with evidence from animal studies indicating that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway counter-regulates inflammation.

It now appears that in our data from the CARDIA study of heart disease in young adults there is an inverse relationship between low frequency RR interval variability and the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP, even after control of relevant covariates and cardioactive medications or hypertension or diabetes, which is consistent with the hypothesis of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates inflammation in humans.

Behavioural modification of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response to C-reactive protein in patients with hypertension

Denne beskriver hvordan regulering av pusten kan påvirke vagus nerven til å dempe betennelser og redusere CRP (en betennelsesmarkør) i blodet.


Objectives.  A central hypothesis of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex model is that innate immune activity is inhibited by the efferent vagus. We evaluated whether changes in markers of tonic or reflex vagal heart rate modulation following behavioural intervention were associated inversely with changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or interleukin-6 (IL-6).

Design.  Subjects diagnosed with hypertension (= 45, age 35–64 years, 53% women) were randomized to an 8-week protocol of behavioural neurocardiac training (with heart rate variability biofeedback) or autogenic relaxation. Assessments before and after intervention included pro-inflammatory factors (hsCRP, IL-6), markers of vagal heart rate modulation [RR high-frequency (HF) power within 0.15–0.40 Hz, baroreflex sensitivity and RR interval], conventional measures of lipoprotein cholesterol and 24-h ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Results.  Changes in hsCRP and IL-6 were not associated with changes in lipoprotein cholesterol or blood pressure. After adjusting for anti-inflammatory drugs and confounding factors, changes in hsCRP related inversely to changes in HF power (β =−0.25±0.1, P = 0.02), baroreflex sensitivity (β = −0.33±0.7, P = 0.04) and RR interval (β = −0.001 ± 0.0004, P = 0.02). Statistically significant relationships were not observed for IL-6.

Conclusions.  Changes in hsCRP were consistent with the inhibitory effect of increased vagal efferent activity on pro-inflammatory factors predicted by the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex model. Clinical trials for patients with cardiovascular dysfunction are warranted to assess whether behavioural interventions can contribute independently to the chronic regulation of inflammatory activity and to improved clinical outcomes.

Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of experimental and clinical hypertension [1–3], and it increases the risk for myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death [4]. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established index of systemic inflammation. It is produced chiefly by hepatocytes under the regulation of a cascade of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß [IL-1ß] and IL-6] that are expressed in response to conditions that include vascular injury and infection. In addition, CRP is produced by human coronary artery smooth muscle cells following exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines [5], which suggests that it may contribute independently to endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis [6].

Clinical trials that have attempted to modify vagal efferent activity by means of aerobic exercise [17, 18], resistance exercise [19] or device-guided vagal nerve stimulation [20–22] have yet to demonstrate consequent reduction in pro-inflammatory activity that is independent of confounding factors such as anti-inflammatory medications.

Subjects received four weekly and two biweekly 1-h sessions of behavioural neurocardiac training or autogenic relaxation, as described previously [23]. Home practice sessions complemented the laboratory-based training. All sessions began with a 10-min review of cognitive-behavioural guidelines for managing daily stress [25].

At the completion of each task, subjects were trained to cognitively disengage from negative or aroused affect and to focus attention on slowing respiration (within their comfort zone) to 10-s cycles (6 breaths min−1). During each countering exercise, subjects were guided by the use of biofeedback to increase RR spectral power at approximately 0.1 Hz, as shown on a biofeedback display of the RR power spectrum (0.003–0.5 Hz) and breaths min−1.

The major finding of this study is that following an 8-week protocol of behavioural neurocardiac training or autogenic relaxation amongst patients with hypertension, change in hsCRP was associated independently and inversely with changes in tonic and reflex vagal heart rate modulation as measured by RR high-frequency power (ms2 per Hz), baroreflex sensitivity (ms per mmHg) and lengthening of the RR interval (ms). A statistical trend in the data suggested a similar inverse association between changes in IL-6 and RR high-frequency power.

A central hypothesis of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex model is that the innate immune response is regulated, in part, by rapid and localized efferent activity of the vagus nerve. Previous reviews have identified the functional anatomy and neural mechanisms of this model [10, 29, 30]. In brief, efferent fibres of the vagus nerve comprise a neural anti-inflammatory pathway that culminates in the release of acetylcholine in proximate sites where pro-inflammatory factors have been expressed. Acetylcholine has been shown to bind to subunit α7 of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cytokine-producing immune cells [30]. This inhibits the activation of NF-κB and the subsequent expression of a pro-inflammatory cascade that includes TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP [10].

To our knowledge, the present proof of principle study involving hypertensive patients provides the most direct evaluation of whether augmentation of tonic or reflex vagal heart rate modulation, in this instance by a behavioural intervention, attenuates independently pro-inflammatory activity as assessed by hsCRP and IL-6. It is noteworthy that the present findings were observed following only modest changes in markers of vagal HR modulation. Previous behavioural trials of heart rate variability biofeedback or relaxation [32–34] have reported a small but statistically significant increase in vagal HR modulation. Similarly, behavioural training is associated with a modest, but statistically significant decrease in proinflammatory factors, including hsCRP and IL-6 [35], although heart rate variability biofeedback failed to reduce other inflammatory factors following experimental administration of an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) [36].

In sum, the present findings support the model of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex when pro-inflammatory activity is measured by hsCRP. Clinical trial evidence has demonstrated that behavioural interventions can significantly augment vagal heart rate modulation or cardiovagal baroreflex gain through the use of relaxation training and biofeedback [32–34].