The effects of slow breathing on affective responses to pain stimuli: an experimental study.

Viktig studie om pustens regulering av smerte som nevner at å senke pustefrekvens demper smerte betraktelig for frisk mennesker, men hos Fibromyalgi er det ikke nok i seg selv som smertedemping.

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«M and HC were exposed to low and moderate thermal pain pulses during paced breathing at their normal rate and one-half their normal rate. »

«Participants who reported higher levels of trait positive affect prior to the experiment showed greater decreases in negative affect as a result of slow versus normal breathing.  »

«FM patients and normal controls were instructed to breathe at either their normal rate or 1/2 that rate during four blocks of four trials.  »

«An inspection of resting breathing rates for the two groups revealed no differences between groups: an average rate of 13.68 (SD = 3.54) breaths per minute for FM patients, and 13.63 (SD = 2.17) for HCs.  »

Skjermbilde 2013-05-12 kl. 11.31.28

«These findings are consistent with those of an observational investigation, which found lower breathing rates were associated with reduced pain intensity and unpleasant- ness ratings when participants meditated while receiving pulses of painful heat [12]. »

«Since all participants were administered trials where pain was administered, the potential benefit of interventions that include the practice of meditation in the treatment of pain patients is sup- ported. However, the mixed findings for FM patients give us pause. It may be more difficult to engender states of relaxation needed to endure pain in FM patients through slow paced breathing alone. »

«Taken together these findings are consistent with the model of pain as a homeostatic emotion. In this model, the neurophysiologi- cal processes that underlie how slow breathing influences pain begins with the increased bronchiopulmonary afferent activity. This activity produces increased activation in the left mid-insula and anterior insula [24], as well as increased activation in the left anterior cingulate associated directly with increased heart rate variability [18], corresponding with a shift in sympathovagal tone. This activation counterbalances the acute activation in the right anterior insula produced by painful stimulation [2] by virtue of opnent interaction [4].»

«The findings indicate that a slower breathing rate is a useful target in interventions for patients in pain. Reductions in pain and negative affect may be ex- pected when people are guided to halve their respiration rate.  »

«However, for FM patients, the data suggest that med- itative breathing alone is insufficient. Clinical interventions that address positive affective disregulation, appear necessary to assist FM patients in the management of their chronic pain. «

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