The Architecture of the Connective Tissu e in the Musculoskel etal System-An Often Overlooked Function al Parameter as to P roprioception in the Locomotor Apparatus

Om bindevevets struktur, mye om mechanoreceptors i bindevevet (golgi, ruffini og pacini spesielt), pluss den nevner «dynamic ligaments» som en del av bindevevet inni og igjennom muskler.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091473/

«The discrimination between so-called joint receptors and muscle receptors is an artificial distinction when function is considered. Mechanoreceptors, also the so-called muscle receptors, are arranged in the context of force circumstances-that is, of the architecture of muscle and connective tissue rather than of the classical anatomic structures such as muscle, capsules, and ligaments. »

«The receptors for proprioception are concentrated in those areas where tensile stresses are conveyed over the elbow joint. Structures cannot be divided into either joint receptors or muscle receptors when muscular and collagenous connective tissue structures function in series to maintain joint integrity and stability. In vivo, those connective tissue structures are strained during movements of the skeletal parts, those movements in turn being induced and led by tension in muscular tissue. In principle, because of the architecture, receptors can also be stimulated by changes in muscle tension without skeletal movement, or by skeletal movement without change in muscle tension. »

«A mutual relationship exists between structure (and function) of the mechanoreceptors and the architecture of the muscular and regular dense connective tissue. Both are instrumental in the coding of proprioceptive information to the central nervous system.»

«Schleip mentions the fascia as «the dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds and connects every muscle, even the tiniest myofibril, and every single organ of the body forming continuity throughout the body.»(

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Destroy user interface control3) In this way, fascia is considered an important integrative element in human posture and movement organization (locomotor apparatus) and is often referred to as the «organ of form.»(

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«The primary connective tissue of the body is the embryonic mesoderm. The mesoderm represents the matrix and environment within which the organs and structures of the body have been differentiated and therefore are embedded.»

«The principal function of mesoderm as «inner tissue» is «mediating» in the sense of «connecting» (binding) and «disconnecting» (shaping space). »

«Regular dense connective tissue structures such as ligaments convey (transmit) those forces «passively.»»

«Connective tissue and fasciae are richly innervated. Fascial layers may thus play an important role in proprioception and nociception. Considerations such as «architecture versus anatomy (topography),»mutatis mutandis may also apply for the spatial organization of mechanoreceptors, the morphologic substrate for proprioception. »

«Mechanoreceptors are in fact free nerve endings (FNEs), whether or not equipped with specialized end organs. The main stimulus for such receptors is deformation. Variation exists as to the microarchitecture of the ending.»

«Mechanoreceptors associated with muscles, including the muscle auxiliary structures such as tendons, are usually classified(14

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Destroy user interface control17) as follows:

  • FNEs (unencapsulated)
  • Muscle spindles (sensory endings with encapsulated intrafusal muscle fibers)
  • GTOs (type III endings, relatively large-100 -600 μm diameter-spray-like endings, with high threshold and very slow-adapting)

The mechanoreceptors typically associated with joints are these:

  • FNEs (unencapsulated)
  • LCs (type II ending with a two- to five-layered capsule, less than 100 μm in length, with low threshold and rapidly adapting). Here, this term is preferred to paciniform corpuscle.
  • RCs (type I ending, relatively small-up to 100 μm-spray-like ending with low threshold and slow-adapting)»

«Those nerve fibers are involved in the afferent pathway of proprioceptive information from the transitional areas between the connective tissue layers and the muscle fascicles organized in series with them [shown schematically in Fig. 7(a)]. This also seems to represent a more ligamentous or articular «pattern of innervation» compared with the related nerve fascicles running on the «outside» of the innervated structure. This is actually a typical capsular or articular pattern [see Fig. 7(a)]. »

«An in series unit of muscular tissue/RDCT layer/skeletal element equipped with mechanosensitive substrate at the transitional areas between the various tissue components constitutes the basic unit of the spatial organization of the substrate of proprioception. Such a unit may occur as a muscle fraction in series with a muscle compartment wall that is shared with the muscular tissue of an adjacent muscle. It may also appear as a muscle compartment wall with muscle fascicles inserting unilaterally and with afferent nerve fibers reaching the related mechanoreceptors from the outer side. This was introduced earlier as the typical «dynamic ligament» (dynament-see Fig. 10, pattern 4).»

«The conclusion is that, in vivo, the activity of a mechanoreceptor is defined not only by its functional properties, but also by its architectural environment. If Abrahams, Richmond, and Bakker(

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Destroy user interface control34) state that the topography of mechanoreceptors provides a «subtle comparative function in the process of sensory coding of muscle events,» they raise the important issue of the spatial distribution of receptors in the process of proprioception. To this should be added the notion that the architecture of the muscular and connective tissue and consequent receptor distribution plays a significant role in the coding of the proprioceptive information that is provided.»

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