Nuclear Magnetic Resonance–Based Metabolomics Enable Detection of the Effects of a Whole Grain Rye and Rye Bran Diet on the Metabolic Profile of Plasma in Prostate Cancer Patients1,2

Denne nevner at MSM (dimetyl sulfone) økes når vi spiser helkorn.

 

Effect of RP on the metabolism of homocysteine and dimethyl sulfone.

WG and bran fractions are rich sources of betaine (36), which may explain the increased betaine level observed after RP in our study. An increase in betaine was previously reported in postprandial plasma collected from pigs fed a WG rye diet (37), but our study shows that it is measurable even in overnight fasting plasma. Betaine acts as a methyl donor in the betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase reaction, which converts homocysteine and betaine to methionine and N,N-dimethylglycine (38). We also observed a reduction in homocysteine and an increase in plasma N,N-dimethylglycine after RP, which indicates a favorable shift in homocysteine metabolism. Elevated circulating homocysteine levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (3941). Insulin suppresses the expression of betaine homocysteine methyl transferase and consequently reduces the rate of the betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase reaction (42). Therefore, the favorable shift in homocysteine metabolism in our study could be explained by reduced insulin secretion (5) as well as higher bioavailability of betaine as reaction precursor after RP treatment.

We also observed an increase in the organic sulfur compound dimethyl sulfone after RP treatment. Dimethyl sulfone is a metabolite occurring in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of normal humans (43). It derives from dietary sources, from intestinal bacterial metabolism and human endogenous methanethiol metabolism (43). It is plausible that higher dimethyl sulfone is associated with a higher rate of intestinal fermentation after RP intake (16). SCFA are also the products of intestinal fermentation (44), but they were not detected in our NMR analysis, possibly because of their limit of detection in plasma.

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