Breathing evaluation and retraining in manual therapy

Nevner mye rundt opptrening av pustefunksjon, men fokuseres på Capnografi fordi forfatteren selger Capnotrainer apparatet.

«According to Hodges et al. (2007), trunk muscle functions of spinal stabilization, continence and respiration are all interrelated. They conclude that when dysfunction occurs in one system, it can negatively impact the other two. Further, it is known that people with back pain brace with their superficial abdominal muscles and diaphragm and have poor core muscle activation (Hodges and Richardson, 1999; Radebold et al., 2001; O’Sullivan and Beales, 2007).»

«In neck pain, it is known that there is frequent evidence of over-activation of some of the inspiratory muscles, such as the scalenes, sternocleidomastoid and upper fibres of trapezius (Falla, 2004; Nederhand et al., 2000).»

«Symptoms associated with hypocapnia
Headache, impaired intellectual function, confusion, giddiness, visual disturbances, light headedness, dizziness, syncope, seizures, hallucinations, depersonalization and unilateral somatic symptoms (Thomson et al., 1997; Gardner, 1996; Lum, 1981). Muscular
Increased membrane excitability (Thomson et al., 1997)
Chest pain, coronary artery spasm (Thomson et al., 1997; Nakao et al., 1997; Laffey and Kavanagh, 2002; Gardner, 1996)
ECG changes (Thomson et al., 1997; Rutherford et al., 2005; Sullivan et al., 2004)
Bronchospasm with or without asthma, breathlessness (Levitsky, 2003; Laffey and Kavanagh, 2002; Gardner, 1996; Lum, 1996)
Increased tone, motility and sensitivity (Ford et al., 1995; Bharucha et al., 1996; Cooke et al., 1996)
Women’s Health
Decreased CO2 levels during pregnancy (Thomson et al., 1997; Jensen et al., 2007, 2008)
Decreased CO2 levels during luteal phase of menses (Slatkovska et al., 2006)
Large drops in CO2 in women with Pre- menstrual Syndrome (Ott et al., 2006) «

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