Nevner blodsirkulasjon og hvordan blodårene forholder seg til pH endringer.
«For the majority of people, just 1 minute of determined overbreathing reduces cutaneous and peripheral blood circulation (colder hands, paler skin); interferes with peripheral nerve conduction (tingling in fingers and lips); lowers muscle contraction thresholds (more susceptible to twitching); and stimulates cerebral vasoconstriction (interference with vision, hearing, sensory perception, balance, orientation, judgment, and cognition). »
Hvis dette skjer etter 1 minutt med hyperventilering, hva skjer ved kronisk hyperventilering?
«A “compensated hyperventilator” will often feel out of breath; because much of the bicarbonate buffer is gone, there is less of a defense against the rising acidity associated with retaining CO2. Normal breathing will feel insufficient. Thus breath-holding time is typically shorter than average—often below 15 seconds. »
«If the breath is stopped or inhibited, CO2 rises and blood vessel diameter increases in order to maximize transfer of glucose and oxygen out of the bloodstream and into the tissues. But with hyperventilation, the opposite happens: blood vessels constrict, inhibiting transfer of nutrients from the bloodstream. »
«Because hyperventilation is associated with alkalinity, the kidneys start retaining acid and more of the blood’s bicarbonate (alkaline) buffer is excreted. Although this does return the pH toward normal, it creates a false, fragile equilibrium that depends on continued hyperventilation. This new “set point” makes recovering a normal breathing pattern difficult. This person will be oversensitive to both exercise and relaxation and may suffer anxiety, chest tight- ness, fatigue, and muscle pain.»
«In some individuals, blood vessel diameter fell by 50%; in others, much less. Those with the strongest constriction general- ly reported more symptoms of panic.»
«Hyperventilation restricts circulation more in the cortex than in the lower brain levels and can seriously impair cortical functioning, disrupting judgment, perception, memory, orientation, and reaction time, and slowing EEG frequencies. »
«Excess sighing and deep breaths are markers for panic disorder (Wilhelm, Trabert, & Roth, 2001).» «For such a person, deep but urgent breathing may be an attempt to over- come a tight diaphragm or other muscular rigidity, so emphasizing muscle relaxation and gentler breathing might be more helpful than recommending deep breathing.»