What nervous systems do: early evolution , input–output, and the skin brain thesis

Viktig studie om en ny forståelse av nervesystemet som tar oss fra et rent informasjonsformidlende system (input/output) til en først og fremst rommlig organisator av muskelceller som i utgangspunktet styrer seg selv. Se også «the real resons for brains» TED foredrag…lignende tema som denne studien.

http://adb.sagepub.com/content/21/2/67.abstract

Hele studien i dropbox

«The SBT therefore constitutes a fundamental conceptual shift in understanding both nervous system operation and what nervous systems are. Nervous systems are foremost spatial organizers that turn large multi-cellular animal bodies into dynamic self-moving units»

«The view that nervous systems transmit information from sensors, process it in some way and use the result to regulate effectors not only is generally accepted in the literature on the evolution of nervous systems, but also provides the consensus text- book interpretation of what nervous systems do for basically all of the neurosciences and the cognitive sciences. »

«In contrast to the input–output view, we develop an alternative proposal that stresses the fundamental coor- dination problems faced by multicellular animals that first developed movement by muscle contraction. This form of motility required the patterned activation of extended muscle sheets dispersed over the body. We hold that the fundamental problem here was not so much to act intelligently—a problem that had already been solved in various ways without a nervous system (Section 3.3)—but to act as a single multicellular unit. »

«The idea that centralized nervous systems are remodeled skin brains becomes a coherent theoreti- cal and empirical option. »

«More recently, immune system elements, such as cytokines, have been shown to play critical roles in modulating neural plasticity under normal as well as challenged conditions (McAfoose and Baune, 2009; Yirmiya and Goshen, 2011), and these associations are also very old (Maier and Watkins, 1998). The neuron doctrine cannot explain these associations either.  »

«Nerve nets initially did not make for smarter behavior, but for muscular behavior. »

«Neuroscience: The SBT has close links to theories of motor control that focus on neural circuits for movement (e.g., Orlovsky, Deliagina, & Grillner, 1999; Stein, Grillner, Selverston, & Stuart, 1997),to neuroethologi- cal studies of animal behavior (e.g., Greenspan, 2007; Marder, 1998), to dynamic approaches within neu- roscience (e.g., Buzsa ́ki, 2006), and to modeling approaches within neuroscience (e.g., Chiel & Beer, 1997; Ijspeert, Crespi, & Cabelguen, 2005) and embodied cognition (Pfeifer & Bongard, 2007).  »

«Sherrington once observed that ‘‘posture follows movement like a shadow’’ (Stuart, 2005). «

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