Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors

Nevner hvordan trening øker betennelse i både spesifikt muskelvev og systemisk, men konkluderer med at det er liten forskjell mellom treningsintensiteter. Forskjellige betennelsesfaktorer. IL-6 er spesielt viktig som anti-inflammatorisk faktor under trening. Kan gi en indikator på måling av stølhet etter trening, siden den øker drastisk etter 3-4 dager som vist i bildet.

«Lengthening muscle contractions elicit an inflammatory response. Within skeletal muscle, pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced, and phagocytic cells invade damaged muscle tissue (for review see ref. (22).»
» Within the systemic circu- lation, the complement cascade is activated, leukocytes are mobilized, and cytokine concentrations increase (22). These inflammatory responses share some similarities with the responses to trauma injury (8).»

«The inflammatory response to contraction-induced injury may be propor- tional to the severity of muscle damage, which in turn is dependent on mechanical loading of muscle during exercise. This relationship is important because the magnitude of the inflammatory response regulates adaptation to muscle injury (32).»

«Furthermore, muscle damage after lengthening contractions (as indicated by loss of muscular strength) corre- lates with blood leukocyte counts and serum C-reactive protein concentration (21).»

«Interleukin (IL)-6 plays an important role in mediating inflammatory responses to exercise. IL-6 is believed to exert anti-inflammatory effects during exercise by inhibiting the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and stimulating the synthesis of other anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10 and soluble TNF-α receptor 1 (sTNF-αR1) (25). IL-6 is produced within, and released from skeletal muscle during exercise in response to glycogen depletion, calcium signaling, changes in blood glucose availability, and to a lesser extent sympathetic activation (9, 11, 13).»

trening og betennelse

Viser at det ikke er noen forskjell på betennelsesfaktorer mellom forskjellige treningsintensiteter:
«The aim of this study was to compare systemic inflammatory responses to sub- maximal versus maximal lengthening contractions. Our data indicate that there were no significant differences in systemic markers of inflammation, despite evidence of greater muscle damage (as indicated by impaired muscular strength) following the maximal versus submaximal contractions.»

Nevner hvordan immunforsvaret reagerer på treningen:
«Elevated blood neutrophil counts are a consistent finding after lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors (17, 27-29). Neutrophils are most likely mobi- lized from endothelial surfaces into the circulation in response to tissue injury such as exercise-induced muscle damage. Once in the circulation, neutrophils travel to the site of injury, and then bind and break down damaged tissue frag- ments. In our study, neutrophil numbers were highest 3 h after exercise.»

«The small increase in serum IL-6 concentration after the submaximal contractions could represent the release of IL-6 from muscle in response to muscle glycogen depletion (13).»

«In conclusion, the present data indicate that although maximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors may result in greater muscle damage, this is not accompanied by a greater systemic inflammatory response.»

«Furthermore, although we could not detect differences in systemic inflammation, differences could exist locally within skeletal muscle.»

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