Are Carbonate Solutions Alive?

Svært interessant artikkel med mange viktige og overraskende poenger. Nevner at vann i levende systemer kan skape oksygen og energi i seg selv, og at dette kun kan skje i «urene» vann-systemer, hvor urenhetene er CO2 og HCO3-. Beskriver hvordan carbonatløsninger tilsatt jern sender ut fotoner (lys) hvor intensiteten påvirkes av månefaser.

Carbonates (bicarbonate, carbonic acid, and CO2) are the necessary constituents of cell cytoplasm and of all biological liquids. The bicarbonate con- tent is strictly maintained in the organism. Its deficiency results in impaired cell and tis- sue respiration, followed by the develop- ment of a variety of pathological states. Both normal and healing drinking waters are usu- ally bicarbonate solutions, and supplemen- tation with bicarbonate is a universal heal- ing method in complementary medicine.

We discovered that the addition of iron oxide Fe(II) salts to bicarbonate solutions induces a wave of photon emission. The in- tensity of the wave is boosted in the presence of luminol, the probe for the reactive oxygen species (ROS), indicating that spontaneous chain reactions with the participation of reactive oxygen species take place continuously in aqueous bicarbonate solutions.

Drastic chang- es in photon emission from both plain and activated bicarbonate solutions were ob- served during and after solar and lunar eclipses, indicating a very high sensitivity of these highly non- equilibrium, and yet stable, systems to extremely low-inten- sity natural factors.
Such properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems imply that they have a complex dynamic structure, that they acquire a con- tinuous supply of energy from the environment, and that they may be sensitive to extremely low-intensity resonant factors. The behavior of these systems agrees with the theory of coherent do- mains developed by G. Preparata and E. Del Giudice.

Living systems are unique in that they are never at equilibrium. They perform work against equilibrium, ceaselessly, and in a manner demanded by the physical and chemical laws appropriate to the actual external conditions.1

In other words, in order to maintain the stability of its non- equilibrium state, a living system transforms all of its free energy into work aimed at sustaining or changing its parameters in response to changing conditions. The non-equilibrium state of mat- ter, in the sense of Bauer’s principle, is an excited state, in which the structure of matter and its properties differ significantly from those characteristic of the equilibrium (ground) state of the same matter. Stable non-equilibrium is displayed at all levels of organization of a living system, including the molecular one.

Water is, by far, the dominant molecular constituent of all liv- ing systems. On a molar basis, water constitutes more than 99 percent of the molecules of any living cell and of the extracel- lular matrix. Biological molecules can exert their functions only in aqueous milieu; no biological processes can occur in a sys- tem whose water content is below a certain threshold.2,3 Thus, water should participate directly both in keeping living matter in the excited state, and in the performance of its work against equilibrium.

A natural electron acceptor whose reduction gives the highest yield of free energy is oxygen. It is always present in water, even if in minute quantities, because under relatively mild conditions water can split and produce oxygen.10 Many “impurities,” such as nano- and micro-bubbles, nanoparticles, and ions facilitate this process. Thus, EZ-water in contact with bulk water containing dissolved oxygen represents a donor- acceptor pair, and, under appropriate conditions, the complete oxygen-reduction reaction may proceed within it:

2H2O (EZ-water) + O2 → O2 + 2H2O (Bulk water) + n·hn (Energy)

The process of EZ-water “burning” (meaning oxygen re- duction by electrons extracted from the “fuel”) outlined in the equation in Figure 2 shows some ideal situation that probably cannot be realized in “pure” water. Certain cata- lysts are needed for the process of water “burning” to pro- ceed efficiently. The most common “impurities” that may serve as catalysts for the processes related to water splitting and burning are the members of the carbonate family:

CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3– +H+

However, even when fuel and oxygen are not limited, respira- tion may be halted if the living system is severely deficient of carbonates. Thus, carbonates present in water may participate in (bio)energetic processes based on respiration on a very fun- damental level.

At the end of the 19th Century, the Swiss biologist Friedrich Miescher discovered that the intensity of physiological respira- tion (breathing) depended much more strongly on small chang- es in the CO2 content in alveolar air, than on the oxygen con- tent in the inhaled air. He described this in a poetic phrase: “Carbon dioxide spreads its protective wings over the body’s oxygen supply—especially as it cares for the brain. . . .”12

Henderson claimed that CO2 (and carbonates in general) is the major hormone of the body; that it is produced in every tissue and exerts its effects on all the tissues; and that a decrease of car- bonates below some critical level, especially in the brain, may result in fatigue and death due to cessation of respiration.13

In fact, it was demonstrated that CO2 and bicarbonates sup- port respiration in isolated leucocytes,14 and are necessary for DNA replication and cell division in primary cultures of eu- karyotic cells.15,16 There are multiple mechanisms for the ac- tion of carbonates on the cellular level. One of them may be related to the reaction of CO2 with the amino groups in pep- tides and proteins, forming unstable carbamino adducts:
Protein-(NH2) + CO2 ↔ Protein-NH-COOH ↔ Protein- NH-COO– + H+

Carbonates modulate oxidation, peroxidation, and ni- tration both in vivo, and in vitro. The carbonates possess such a property because they react with the active oxygen species, and turn into relatively long-living and more selectively acting free radicals18 and peroxycarbonates.19 In particular, they exert striking effects on the activity of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species.

The least, but probably not the last, is the ability of carbon- ates to participate directly in the synthetic reactions which give rise to the organic compounds, and in the processes in which (bio)polymers originate.20

Using sensitive single photon counters we found that a wave of photon emission in the visi- ble range of the electromagnetic spectrum may be initiated in bicarbonate artesian waters and in aqueous bicarbonate solu- tions, following the addition of Fe(II) salts (FeSO4 or FeCl2) in concentrations as low as 5 μM (micromoles).

The development of a luminol-amplified photon emission- wave from bicarbonate solutions of Fe(II) salts, indicated that spontaneous chain reactions with the participation of reactive oxygen species continuously take place in aqueous bicarbon- ate solutions.

Carbonates present in such water may perform several func- tions simultaneously. CO2 may support water structuring,21 and structured water splits more easily under the action of multiple physical factors. Water splitting results in the appearance of free radicals (H atoms and hydroxyl radicals), and HCO3– is easily oxidized by a hydroxyl radical (HO·), turning into a carbonate radical CO3–.

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