Comparative clinical effectiveness of management strategies for sciatica: systematic review and network meta-analyses.

Denne sammenligner effekten av forskjellige behandlingsformer mot isjas og konkluderer med at f.eks. manipulering, akupunktur og anti-inflammatoriske biologiske midler (renger med dette inkluderer kosttilskudd) er en bedre løsning enn opioider, hvile, treningsterapi, m.m. Den sier også at kirurgi er en god løsning generelt, men ikke for smerte.

For overall recovery as the outcome, compared with inactive control or conventional care, there was a statistically significant improvement following disc surgery, epidural injections, nonopioid analgesia, manipulation, and acupuncture.

For pain as the outcome, epidural injections and biological agents were significantly better than inactive control, but similar findings for disc surgery were not statistically significant.

The findings support the effectiveness of nonopioid medication, epidural injections, and disc surgery. They also suggest that spinal manipulation, acupuncture, and experimental treatments, such as anti-inflammatory biological agents, may be considered. The findings do not provide support for the effectiveness of opioid analgesia, bed rest, exercise therapy, education/advice (when used alone), percutaneous discectomy, or traction.

Effectiveness of myofascial release: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Denne viser til en økende grad av kvalitet på studier på myofascial release, som Strukturell Integrering er. Konklusjonen er at det er god evidens for å bruke dette mot mange muskel- og ledd smertetilstander, og at denne behandlingsformen faktisk kan konkurrere med andre behandlingsformer.

Seventeen studies were with higher methodological quality and the remaining 2 were of moderate quality, which is appreciable for a relatively new approach with considerable amount of practice variations.

The results of the studies were encouraging, particularly with the recently published studies. In many RCT’s the MFR was adjunctive to other treatments and the potential-specific MFR effect cannot be judged.

Nine studies concluded that MFR may be better than no treatment or sham treatment for various musculoskeletal and painful conditions. Seven studies demonstrated that MFR with a conventional therapy is more effective than a control group receiving no treatment (3 studies), sham treatment (1 study) or with a conventional therapy.

There is evidence that MFR alone or added to other conventional therapies, relieves pain and improves function not lesser than conventional therapies studied. According to these results, MFR may be useful as either a unique therapy or as an adjunct therapy to other established therapies for a variety of conditions like sub acute low back pain, fibromyalgia, lateral epicondylitis, plantar fasciitis, headache, fatigue in breast cancer, pelvic rotation, hamstring tightness etc.

Comparison of spinal fusion and nonoperative treatment in patients with chronic low back pain: long-term follow-up of three randomized controlled trials.

Denne nevner at 11 år etter en «spinal fusion» operasjon er det ingen forskjell på de som ble operert og de som ikke ble operert. De konkluderer med at «spinal fusion» ikke bør utføres så lenge det er andre muligheter for behandling tilgjengelig.


After an average of 11 years follow-up, there was no difference in patient self-rated outcomes between fusion and multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioral and exercise rehabilitation for cLBP. The results suggest that, given the increased risks of surgery and the lack of deterioration in nonoperative outcomes over time, the use of lumbar fusion in cLBP patients should not be favored in health care systems where multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioral and exercise rehabilitation programmes are available.

The trigger point strikes … out!

En blog av Quinter som bedre forklarer det nevrologiske utgangspunktet for triggerpunkter, eller mer korrekt: ømme punkter og stramme muskler.

Basert på deres nye forklaringsmodell vil et problem (f.eks. betennelse) lenger inn på en sensorisk nerve sender betennelse (nevrogen betennelse) ut til muskelen, i tillegg til at motoriske og sympatiske (stress) signaler fra ryggmargen sendes ut til muskelen og gir en muskelspenning og twitchrespons vi kan se og kjenne med fingrene.

Ang. nevrogen betennelse så nevner wikipedia en studie på mus som viser at magnesium mangel, selv det som er innenfor «normalen» kan bidra til økt utskillelse av SP, som er en nevrogen betennelsesfaktor.


But when I met the late Bob Elvey, he completely changed my way of thinking about these clinical problems. Bob’s mantra was that “muscles protect nerves.” He introduced me to the dynamics of the nervous system and I came to understand that peripheral nerves of the upper limb had evolved to be able to adapt to the various changes in limb position and length and that they were vulnerable at certain anatomical points along their course.


In brief, Geoff’s studies have had two major impacts on how we think about pain felt in muscles or other deep structures.

Firstly, he confirmed the presence of nociceptors with multiple receptive fields that branch within the nerve sheaths and extend to other deep tissues (nervi nervorum) [7]. The implication of this finding is that activity in a receptor in one structure such as the nerve sheath, could be perceived in another, such as the muscle.

Secondly, he showed that inflammation of nerves has profound effects on these same axons, the nociceptors to deep structures. These effects include ongoing activity and abnormal mechanical sensitivity [8, and others]. The implication of this finding is that this activity will be perceived by the brain in the area of the receptive fields mapped for the deep structure nociceptors, not in the area of the problem.


Figure 1. Proposed hypothesis for the development of focal muscle sensitivity and possible alteration in muscle texture with a proximal neural cause. Inflammation affecting a peripheral nerve (red spot) results in spontaneous and mechanically evoked afferent and efferent action potentials in small caliber sensory neurons innervating non-cutaneous structures, and decreased sympathetic discharge (-). These processes may cause reflex motor discharge sufficient to cause a palpable contraction (?), which combined with clinical phenomena associated with neurogenic inflammation (+), could explain the clinical phenomenon that has become known as a “trigger point.”


Guideline for diagnosis and treatment of subacromial pain syndrome

Beskriver det meste om behandling av innklemninger som fører til smerter når man løfter armen. Alle studier på behandling har blitt gradert med «level of evidence», hvor 1 er best. Operative inngrep har fått evensgrad 3, altså svært dårlig, selv når det er snakk om Rotator Cuff Tear.

1. A diagnosis of SAPS can only be made after a combination of tests; the Hawkins-Kennedy test, the painful arc test, and the infraspinatus muscle strength test are advisable.

5. Prescribe therapy or home exercises of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training with stabilization training of the scapula and focusing on relaxation and proper posture.

6. Treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) can support exercise therapy.

Vibration and pressure wave therapy for calf strains: a proposed treatment

Denne nevner også veldig mye interessant om Segmental Vibration Therapy, og benytter seg av en maskin som ligner Percussor. Nevner bl.a. at betennelses faktorer, som IL-6 og CRP, går ned


Calf (lower leg) strains have a variety of treatment regimens with variable outcomes and return to activity (RTA) time frames. These injuries involve disruption of portions or the entire gastrocnemius-soleus myo-tendinous complex. Conservative treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE). Immediately following calf injury, patients can utilize cryotherapy, massage, passive range of motion, and progressive exercise. In general, Grade I through Grade III calf strains can take up to 6 weeks before the athlete can return to training. It can also involve the loss of more than 50% of muscle integrity. Recently, vibration therapy and radial pressure waves have been utilized to treat muscular strains and other myo-tendinous injuries that involve trigger points. Studies have suggested vibration therapy with rehabilitation can increase muscle strength and flexibility in patients. Segmental vibration therapy (SVT) is treatment to a more focal area. Vibration therapy (VT) is applied directly to the area of injury. VT is a mechanical stimulus that is thought to stimulate the sensory receptors, as well as decrease inflammatory cells and receptors. Therefore, VT could be a valuable tool in treating athlete effectively and decreasing their recovery time. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader baseline knowledge of VT and propose a treatment protocol for calf strains using this technology along with radial pressure waves.

Findings also showed a decrease in IL6 at five days after an increase at the first 24 hours as compared to the control group. There was a decrease in CRP and Histamine at five days. Broadbent et al. related the CPK findings were unclear4.

treatment showed increase ROM at the ankle, and increased hamstring flexibility compared to the post control treatment as well as baseline. There was also a decrease in stiffness at the ankle as well as the hamstring after SVT.


Immediate effects of breathing re-education on respiratory function and range of motion in chronic neck pain.

Å lære seg å bruke riktige pustemuskler gir mindre muskelspenninger og bedre bevegelighet i nakken. Om diafragma, den viktigste pustemuskelen, er svak eller på en eller annen måte ikke blir brukt nok, vil nakkemusker ta over store deler av pustefunksjonen. Dette kan være grunnlag til mange plager i nakken.

I denne studien gjorde 36 mennesker 30 minutter pustetrening. Smertenivåer og muskelspenninger ble redusert, og bevegelse i brystkassen og i nakken ble økt. 

Med enkle øvelser kan man få store resultater. Kun 30 minutter er nok! Om man gjør øvelser hver dag og diafragma blir sterke så trengs det mye mindre tid også.


Breathing re-education can change breathing patterns and increase chest expansion. This change leads to an improvement in CROM Positive consequences may result from the improvement in diaphragm contraction or reduced activity of accessory muscles.