Bekrefter at manglende anti-inflammatoriske stoffer (IL-4 og IL-10) er proporsjonalt med smertetilstander, spesielt fibromyalgi.
«Chronic widespread pain is associated with a lack of antiinflammatory and analgesic Th2 cytokine activity, which may contribute to its pathogenesis.»
«This definition includes chronic widespread pain, which is pain of a duration of at least 3 months in an axial distribution, plus pain on both the left and the right side of the body, plus pain above and below the waist (2), combined with pain upon digital palpation with 4 kg of pressure on at least 11 of 18 defined tender points. »
«In a study with 113 FM patients, significantly increased serum IL-8 and IL-2 receptor expression was found by ELISA, and IL-8 levels were found to correlate with pain intensity (19).»
«IL-10 is produced by activated T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, and keratinocytes. The production of IL-10 is inhibited by several cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13, and interferon-γ (IFNγ), and through autoregulation by IL-10 itself (24). »
«IL-4 is considered to be a pleiotropic antiinflammatory cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils. It affects T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, mast cells, synoviocytes, and endothelial cells, activates and supports the growth of B cells, and triggers the production of IgG and IgE. IL-4 inhibits macrophage activation and directs the T helper cell differentiation to the Th2 side (32). «